«International Journal of Media and Information Literacy» – scientific E-journal.

E-ISSN 2500-106X

Publication frequency – once in 6 months. Issued from 2016.

2 December 15, 2020

1. Mastewal Misganaw Alemayehu
Communicating Health: Media Framing of COVID−19 Pandemic in Sub–Saharan African Countries

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 110-122.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.110CrossRef

The issues of health are relevant to the existence of a human being. How can communication hasten containment of a COVID–19 pandemic is crucial to mitigate its impact on human lives since issues relating to health are considered vital to all strata of persons in the society regardless of their socio–economic and political status. This study is to investigate how Addis Zemen newspaper covered and framed news stories concerning Coronavirus health concerns in Ethiopia. Using the quantitative content analysis method, the newspaper was analyzed along the lines of its news report; feature stories, editorial, opinion as well as interviews. Findings show that much coverage has been given to the spread of coronavirus, and the issue was considered prominent in the newspaper. On sources of information, about one–quarter of the stories have used government officials as its sources; on the other hand, about one–five of the reports on Coronavirus were substantiated by health experts and health organizations. Ten types of frames were found prominently emphasized in the reports while two were made salience in almost half of the total reports on the pandemic. Containment and effect frames were by far the most frequently appearing frame in the media.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058147.pdf
Number of views: 521      Download in PDF

2. Chinedu Eugenia Anumudu, Adamkolo Mohammed Ibrahim
Susceptibility Awareness Via Media Platforms is the Key for Curbing the Spread of COVID-19 Infections: Evidence from the Health Belief Model Perspective

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 123-133.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.123CrossRef

Since the outbreak of Covid-19 in Nigeria, efforts are made by the government, especially the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) towards curbing its spread. Daily updates on new cases and deaths are proving that the efforts so far made toward curtailing the virus have not been effective. Employing the Health Belief Model approach, the study through the quantitative method evaluated the impact of perceived susceptibility on self-efficacy and perceived severity toward cues to action in curbing the spread of Covid-19 infections in Nigeria. Key findings showed that only 12.4 % of the respondents had a high level of Covid-19 susceptibility. Moreover, the two independent variables were able to contribute small and medium variance effect sizes on perceived susceptibility and cues to action. Perceived susceptibility also had partial mediation effects on the relationships between self-efficacy, perceived severity, and cues to action respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that the levels of Nigerians' Covid-19 perceived susceptibilities need to be raised to strengthen the effectiveness of self-efficacy and perceived severity for cues to action toward curbing the spread of the Covid-19 infections in the country. This study further contributed to the domain of cognitive behaviors and health information literacy strategies for curbing infectious diseases.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608733218.pdf
Number of views: 443      Download in PDF

3. Тatyana Balina, Elena Dagaeva, Irina Novi
Research of the Informational Needs of State and Municipal Employees in the University Environment

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 134-144.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.134CrossRef

The study is devoted to the problem of the formation and development of informational needs of state and municipal employees in the university environment. Needs are a necessary prerequisite for any activity. Taking into account the increasing role of media literacy and improving the informational and communicational competencies of state and municipal employees, the task is to study various aspects of media literacy of students in the training direction 38.03.04 – "State and municipal administration" (“GMU”) and working employees in this area of professional activity. In the course of the analysis of scientific sources reflecting aspects of the formation of media literacy of state and municipal employees, a deficiency of empirical research in this area was found. This led to the organization and conduct of a questionnaire survey of students in the direction of training 38.03.04 – "GMU" and current state and municipal employees. As a result of processing and analysis of the data obtained, it was found that the level of informational needs and the range of media resources used by students is much lower than that of working specialists. The conditions for the formation and development of informational needs in the university environment are not enough, and they do not fully meet the requirements for the level of development of "digital competencies" of a modern civil servant. Acting employees regularly use media resources in their professional activities and understand the importance of developing media literacy at the earliest stages of professional training. Based on the results of the scientific interpretation of the results, the paper identifies a mechanism for the formation of a student's personal sense of mastering media literacy, which is able to form a stable tendency towards further self-study and professional development. Content filling of the proposed mechanism with specific teaching tools is considered as a prospect for further research.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058451.pdf
Number of views: 432      Download in PDF

4. Javier Cifuentes-Faura
COVID-19 and Infodemics: How to Solve this Problem

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 145-152.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.145CrossRef

COVID-19 has not only caused an unprecedented health crisis; it has also caused an infodemic with the spread of false news. The role of the media is crucial in trying to reduce the spread of these hoaxes. Infodemics can cause citizens and political institutions to make bad decisions. Some of the fake news that authorities are most concerned about are those related to remedies to prevent contagion or cure symptoms, as these deceptions can lead to increased contagion or worsening of the disease by coronavirus. The media can play a positive role during the Covid-19 pandemic by promoting effective strategies to help people prevent the spread of the pandemic. They have the ability to convey a sense of unity by reaching large numbers of people, but can also provide grounds for misinformation and discrimination. This article reviews some of the major hoaxes that have spread during the coronavirus crisis, and provides guidelines for citizens to detect the false information that is being disseminated. In addition, useful recommendations are established for content creators and information disseminators, with the aim of promoting effective and truthful communication during this crisis.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058492.pdf
Number of views: 433      Download in PDF

5. Alexander Fedorov, Galina Mikhaleva
Current Trends in Media and Information Literacy in Research and Scientific Publications of the early 21st century

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 153-163.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.153CrossRef

This review article presents the current trends in media and information literacy in scientific publications of the early 21st century based on the content analysis of Russian and foreign researches: – major function of media and information literacy is to provide access to information and knowledge and promote free, independent and pluralistic mediated social environments (UNESCO); – media literacy as a vital, survival skill for an individual; – minimizing online risks and expanding online opportunities in media literacy education; – information or digital literacy in the educational and professional contexts; – focus on studying human behaviour in social computer-mediated interactions and challenges of global cross-cultural communication; – promoting people’s media and information literacy for active social change; – media literacy and digital literacy as critical instruments against various online risks and manipulations; – media and information literacy integrated into the school curriculum and university syllabus; – media literacy education aimed at students’ applying their critical thinking skills to media messages and creating media texts; – focus on media language and representation analysis in media and film studies; – national peculiarities of promoting media and information literacy in different countries; – international media literacy based on the effective strategies used in different cultures. Besides, the authors emphasize the following problem zones in media literacy education for further research and development: training and education programs for media studies for all levels of education; teacher training courses in media education; increasing media awareness of all stakeholders and organizations in the social sphere; international collaboration and research in media education and a wide exchange of research findings; practical application of media literacy education for various social groups.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058695.pdf
Number of views: 462      Download in PDF

6. Abduljalil Nasr Hazaea, Abdullah Ayidh J. Alqahtani
Competences in Digital Online Media Literacy: Towards Convergence with Emergency Remote EFL Learning

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 164-175.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.164CrossRef

With the emergency shift to remote learning due to the spread of COVID-19 and the advent of communication technology, developing digital online media literacy (DOML) has become necessary for Saudi English as foreign language (EFL) students. Media literacy empowers EFL students to access, analyze, evaluate, and produce digital online media texts. The preparatory year (PY) is a bridging year that links school outcomes to university demands. This study examines the competences in DOML among students in PY at Saudi University. It also examines whether any differences can be attributed to gender. To accomplish this, a four-dimensional survey of 36 items was adapted from T. Hallaq’s (Hallaq, 2016) to serve EFL context. The simple sample consisted of 170 respondents (85 males and 85 females). The results showed that the respondents are competent in DOML (m=3.73), and that there were no statistical differences between females and males. This result indicates that the respondents are ready for the emergency remote learning. Both males and females are subject to the same homogeneous educational system. The paper concludes with some pedagogical implications for emergency remote EFL learning.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058794.pdf
Number of views: 422      Download in PDF

7. Anna Кamyshanova, Oksana Karyagina, Angelika Karyagina
Legal Ways to Counteract Institutional Deformations in Advertising in the Media Space

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 176-183.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.176CrossRef

This article examines the phenomenon of advertising as one of the activities, without which it is impossible for society to move along the path of progress in the conditions of transformation and modernization of all spheres of human life and society. The influence of advertising on the active sphere of life is indistinct, since it not only boosts production, consumption and services, but also manipulates public consciousness and shapes certain behavioral models. A goal of advertising as an information technology is to influence the individual, group or mass consciousness. On the other hand, law as a general social regulator can interfere in the sphere of advertising. In this context, law as a regulator of public relations in general and advertising in particular is aimed at ensuring that consumers receive reliable information about the advertised goods, services or works. The law establishes requirements for the content of advertising, as well as the methods, forms of its placement and distribution. The study of the relationship between advertising and law is aimed at searching for areas of lawful and illegal behavior in order to determine the legal ways to counteract institutional deformations in advertising.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058845.pdf
Number of views: 436      Download in PDF

8. Аndrii E. Lebid, Sergey I. Degtyarev, Lyubov G. Polyakova
A Study into the Skills of Using Data Verification Tools as a Media Information Literacy Instrument for University Students

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 184-190.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.184CrossRef

Amid information wars and growing populism, when manipulation, propaganda and disinformation appear to be a natural focus, when officials, opinion leaders and media communicate unsafe and unverified information, when only up to 20% of messages can be marked as veracious, it becomes essential to develop critical and meaningful information consumption. The self-explanatory statistics, provided by fact-checkers, speak volumes and inspire those who have command of the investigation method in the fact check format to fully leverage it both in their professional activities and in daily lives. The paper structures and classifies the key aspects of fact-checking, identifies its specific characteristics and effects, and sketches out the future outlook for its use as a new media trend. The work defines central objectives of fact-checking investigations and what differentiate them from conventional investigations. It has been revealed that fact-checkers are gradually shifting their field of activity to the plane of the so-called “unofficial sources” of information, such as social networking websites, public narratives and discourses, media materials of diverse origin, etc. The findings of the study conducted demonstrate a correlation between the general media literacy, which respondents evaluated as rather low – average and below average and the need for its end-to-end improvement, including through interactive media practices, trainings and projects. The study concludes that respondents are actually ignorant of the fact-checking and data verification tools available. We believe the fact is also immediately linked with the overall level of media maturity and respondent information literacy, levels of critical and analytical thinking, and the ability to work on information and its sources.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058921.pdf
Number of views: 463      Download in PDF

9. Noor ul Sabah, Humera Sharif, Mohsin Hassan Khan
Persuasive Strategies and Video Games: An Insight into Age of Empire III

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 191-198.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.191CrossRef

This study investigates the role of visual signs and modes in the meanings interpretation of visual depiction and also the ideology behind this visual manifestation. It also explores various persuasive strategies through the semiotic manifestation of the video game Age of Empire III. This study reflects the way of meaning making in which video game has been designed to incorporate itself in the virtual world. So, multimodal semiotic analysis of video game: Age of Empire III has been undertaken in the light of G. Kress, T. Leeuwen’s (Kress, Leeuwen, 2001) theory of multimodal communication and S. Littlejohn’s (Littlejohn, 1999) concepts of elements, environment, game design, and gameplay, and storyline and action outcome interactions. It is a qualitative type of research. The multimodal framework and concepts of various terms have been used as an eclectic approach in the study. The study reveals that this video game’s manifestation is an indirect programming of the player in the game who plays and follows the instructional pattern whereas the game introduces the semiotics in form of game choices and gives players the thought of free will. This dual potential has manifested to persuade and provide entertainment to the player or viewer.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608058977.pdf
Number of views: 429      Download in PDF

10. Jacob Owusu Sarfo, Edward Wilson Ansah
Fear Experiences of Social Media Users in Ghana During the COVID-19 Pandemic-Lockdown: An Online Survey

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 199-204.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.199CrossRef

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is known to place a burden of fear upon individuals in the affected communities. This is mainly due to the unregulated circulation of misinformation, conspiracy theories, and fear messages on social media. During a three-week partial lockdown of some cities in Ghana, with high rate of COVID-19 cases, many social media users were exposed to the global pandemic of COVID-19 misinformation. As there exists little empirical data on the topic, we used an online survey to explore the lived fear experiences of social media users in Ghana. To understand their experiences, data from 27 persons who lived in Accra, Tema, and Kumasi were collected via a qualitative online survey between 21st April and 10th May 2020. Using Colaizzi’s 7-step analytical approach, we conducted a phenomenological analysis for participants’ (29.6 % males and 70.4 % females) text data until we reached data saturation. We observed that respondents shared varied fear experiences during the lockdown. Participants’ fears included (1) fear of risk for COVID-19 infection, (2) fear of using a health facility, (3) fear of impending scarcities of essential home commodities, (4) fear of economic crisis, and (5) fear of the unknown about the pandemic. We recommend that the government, regulatory bodies, and other stakeholders regulate the large volume of misinformation coming through social media platforms. Furthermore, much effort is needed by Ghana’s Ministry of Health and Ghana Health Service to provide adequate health education on COVID-19 to promote public mental health.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608212106.pdf
Number of views: 415      Download in PDF

11. Anna S. Slavko, Vladyslava M. Zavhorodnia, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko
Protection of One’s Honor, Dignity, and Business Reputation on Social Networks: Issues and Ways to Resolve Them

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 205-216.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.205CrossRef

Over the last decade, social networks have become an indispensable part of societal life. Today, they are used not only for engaging in interpersonal communication but also for developing a personal image or business reputation, creating or promoting a brand, building professional or business relations, conducting commerce, or obtaining the latest information about what is going on around the world. The findings from an analysis of relevant legislation, case law, and user agreements indicate the unique legal nature of social networks. Based on their analysis of social networks’ key functions, the authors prove that in many areas social networks have acquired the role of mass media, as they are capable now of delivering the latest news or any other information to the user factoring in their individual tastes and information needs. Given the significant role played by social networks in informing people in today’s society, coupled with their key characteristics such as horizontal dissemination of information, lack of preliminary moderation of user comments, and availability of two-way communication, compromising people’s honor, dignity, and business reputation on social networks can have quite serious implications for them in various spheres of social life. With that said, it appears to be quite difficult, for now, to counter this kind of attacks, both technically and legally. The paper provides an analysis of key issues that can arise as part of efforts to counter defamation on social networks (e.g., difficulty of establishing the identity of a respondent, difficulty of proving malice, or having to factor in the special nature of communication on social networks) and ones to develop legal solutions and ways to overcome such issues.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608059105.pdf
Number of views: 422      Download in PDF

12. Victoria Vziatysheva
How Fake News Spreads Online?

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 217-226.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.217CrossRef

Permeating the Internet and reaching millions of users, fake news became a pervasive phenomenon on the public agenda since the US Presidential election in 2016. The term, despite its ambiguity, has been widely used in research to describe false messages created with the intent to mislead. However empirical evidence on how fake news spreads and circulates between individuals and different social groups remains limited. For this literature review, I collected 21 academic articles published in English between 2016 and 2020 that explore the audience of fake news, patterns of its dissemination, and the role played by average users and bots in this process. The reviewed studies sometimes arrive at contradictory conclusions regarding important aspects of the focal phenomenon: for example, authors differently evaluate the scale of it and reach opposing conclusions studying the influence of bots on the fake news spread. Moreover, I observe certain contextual imbalances: many papers focus on the US political agenda and collect data from Facebook or Twitter, all but neglecting other digital platforms where disinformation can circulate. In this paper, I argue that future research needs a systematic exploration of users' motivations to share fake news and more precise look into the role of media in misinformation dissemination. It is also important to compare the spread of fake news within different political contexts and media systems to explore how local peculiarities affect its circulation.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608059153.pdf
Number of views: 417      Download in PDF

13. Alina Zaidi, Ahmad Hanan, Farahat Ali, Muhammad Awais
Media Objectification and Women Clothing Buying Behavior: Social Comparison and Self-Gratification as Mediators

International Journal of Media and Information Literacy, 2020, 5(2): 227-236.
DOI: 10.13187/ijmil.2020.2.227CrossRef

The aim of the current research is to explore the mediating role of self-gratification and social comparison in explaining the relationship between media objectification and clothing buying behavior in women. For this purpose, correlational research design was employed using 400 female participants within the age ranges of 18-29 selected by convenient sampling. The data was collected using developed questionnaire. The results from Pearson Product Moment correlation highlighted that media objectification (MO) was found to be strongly related with self-gratification (SG), social comparison (SC) and clothing buying behavior (CBB) in women. The results from Path Analysis using AMOS highlighted the mediating role of SC and SG in explaining the relationship of media objectification with women clothing buying behavior. The finding from the study highlighted that besides media objectification in predicting women clothing buying behavior, SC and SG also plays significant roles, these results fills the gaps in the literature pertaining to clothing buying behavior.

URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608059240.pdf
Number of views: 410      Download in PDF

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URL: http://ejournal46.com/journals_n/1608728960.pdf
Number of views: 450      Download in PDF

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